Quantum cosmology is an attempt to build a quantum model of the entire cosmos.
It attempts to answer many unanswered questions of modern classical physics, especially those pertaining to the early stages of the universe. One of the most accepted models of the early universe was formulated by Einstein, and has been incorporated into several formulations of quantum mechanics. However, there are also a number of models that are not based on Einstein’s model.
Quantum cosmologists also attempt to make discoveries within the realm of general relativity. They believe that the laws of special relativity are incomplete, because they do not allow for the existence of time and the cosmos. In order to solve these equations, they introduce a new concept called the time vacuum. Time vacuums occur when there is no time.
The other branch of quantum cosmology involves the idea of a big bang.
The hypothesis of a big bang originated with NASA scientists during the 1970’s, who were looking to determine the speed of expansion of the Universe at various points in time in the past and during the present. Although the presence of the time vacuum was rejected by some astronomers because it could not account for the accelerating Universe, it was embraced by others. As a result, there are people who subscribe to both ideas, the first one being general relativity and the second, the theory of quantum mechanics.
In addition to general relativity, another branch of quantum cosmology deals with the idea of minisuperspace. According to this model, there is no such thing as a void, because our space and time is actually nothing but a network of infinitely divisible ‘strings’. There are two different proposals regarding how the strings are connected, and this leads to diverging theories of the structure of atoms. String theory also postulates that our Universe is governed by the same laws of natural selection that govern the evolution of life on Earth, and this could explain why we are here.
A third branch of Quantum cosmology deals with the idea of Quantum vacuum.
This idea was developed by scientists Albert Einstein and Otto Stern in the 1920’s and remained a minority view until Paul J. Duffey introduced electroweak and electrotonic Quantum laws in the 1940’s. According to Duffey’s theory, there are no matter fields, but rather only virtual field operators that govern the behavior of virtual particles when their environment gets destroyed by an outside force. The properties of such matter fields can be used to calculate vacuum fluctuations and the emergence of new laws of nature.
A fourth branch of Quantum cosmology deals with the predictions of string theory.
First proposed by Einstein, this theory suggests that space and time do not exist. Rather, all matter and energy is completely elastic and in an accelerated state as a result of an outside influence. String theory suggests that the entire Universe contains unperceivable but powerful energy and even that it is accelerating.
The inflationary principle indicates that the rate of expansion of the Universe occurs at a constant value without any internal factors that can affect it. Apart from this, it also predicts the existence of super particles which are theorized to be part of a large number of hypothetical ‘brilliant’ elementary particles.
A fifth branch of Quantum cosmology makes use of quantum field theory.
It postulates that the total amount of energy in the universe is controlled by a myriad of elementary particles that are classified as bosons and neutrally charged. In the last few years, more progress has been made in this field with the use of satellites and detectors. A variety of experiments performed using satellites and detectors have yielded consistent results that support the Quantum theory of Cosmology.
Apart from these theories, another school of thought also believes in Quantum cosmology.
This school of thought is known as loop quantum cosmology and it consists of such notions as black holes, portals and wormholes. Among other things, it assumes that our Universe is a ‘fling’ or a ‘brane’ of sorts which can be explained by the Quantum principles. This form of Quantum cosmology suggests that there might have been a big bang that kicked off the creation of the entire universe but since that time it has spiraled in a non-linear fashion through the Universe until it reaches the present situation.