Dark Energy – Theories and Explanations

Do you know what dark energy is? 

If not, it’s what makes the vacuum that surrounds most of the planets in our solar system, vibrating at a very high frequency. It is thought that this is the result of solar wind that has come too close to a star for too long. What scientists are looking at is a much larger energy that is invisible to us, but makes up a great deal of what we know about space and the Universe.

The first thought when you hear the term “dark energy” is that it must be some new theory that hasn’t been witnessed by humans yet. It can’t be right, since the laws of physics as we know them today allow for such expansion. In fact, the first theories on space were put forward millions of years ago. For the most part though, no one has ever witnessed dark energy in action. Because of this, the theory that this invisible energy plays a major role in the movement of galaxies has remained largely a mystery.

Dark energy as we know it was first propounded by Einstein, and in his special theory of relativity.

He gave a name to it: the cosmological constant. In this theory, Einstein postulates that the rate at which time is passing is equal to the value of a constant that he derived using the elliptical formula. This equation says that the value of the cosmological constant changes as the composition of matter changes. Einstein’s hypothesis came out of a need to explain why the majority of celestial bodies seem to be arranged in a way that is similar to an oblate spheroid.

An examination of how dark energy causes the expansion of the Universe will show that there is a connection between it and the strength of gravity. Basically, what happens is that mass, whether it is dark or light, attracts other mass, including its own weight. Since the strength of gravity is proportional to the squared value of the distance to the center of a mass, this can tell us just how much the mass is expanding before it reaches a point where it might eventually stop expanding, and that is exactly what Einstein found. And, it also tells us that the greater the mass that an object has, the greater its potential energy.

There are three main theories that explain the appearance of dark energy in the universe, all of which contradict each other. 

  • They are referred to as CPV, Nutation, and the Grand Unified Theories (GUTs). 
  • CPV stands for Constraint Theory of Gravity, while Nutation is related to poystals. 
  • The last theory is commonly referred to as the Grand Unified Theories of Gravity, and the acronym GR does not stand for anything. All three theories provide different explanations as to why the universe is structured the way it is.

Although there is only one theory that is currently accepted by most scientists as the true cause behind the creation of dark energy, more testing is needed to determine whether or not GR is correct. 

Because the effects of dark energy are felt far beyond the solar system, perhaps even beyond our galaxy, there is a very strong possibility that it could be influencing the behavior of other planetary systems. For instance, some believe that the existence of dark energy is causing an unusual acceleration in the rotation of the planets in our solar system, which may have implications for our understanding of space and general laws of physics. If this is indeed the case, then GR may also be causing an acceleration in the accelerating expansion of the universe – one that scientists do not yet know about, despite the fact that they have formulated a way to look for it.

The problem with all of these theories is that they can all be ruled out by observation. 

Dark energy does not account for the holes in the space-time continuum, and even if it did, it would not affect the current study of quantum mechanics. Since it would not act in a deterministic fashion, there is no way to tell if it would bring about the next big event in the universe like the Big Bang. But with current technology and a wealth of space-based observations, it is possible to measure the distance of celestial bodies, and thus infer their mass and velocity, by analyzing their distance and relative positions with respect to that of other ordinary objects.

Conclusion

While astronomers have been able to detect the existence of dark energy, they cannot explain exactly why it exists. Although astronomers cannot pin-point exactly what is causing it, theories suggest that it has to do with the expansion of the Universe. There are two competing theories on this matter.

One suggests that the dark energy is caused by something that came from space, while the other says it came from super-fast expansion. If scientists were able to prove which one was correct, it would provide them with one more piece of information about the nature of the universe, and would help them better understand GR. It is likely that they will not be able to prove which one is correct, but they have made a start.

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