Dark matter is a mysterious material that makes up most of space-time, making up about 75 % of the entire space-time. Though experts have seen the tiny gravitational effects of dark matter since billions of years ago, scientists are still puzzled as to its nature. Here is a look at what we know about dark matter and what it does:
Dark Matter particles like ordinary matter can not be seen by the naked eye.
This is because they float freely in space, and are so small that they do not reflect or transmit light. The mass of a dark matter particle is therefore very large compared to that of other ordinary particles. Even though the average human eye can not see these particles, they can be detected through an instrument called a gravitational lens. This technique, which is used to view other celestial objects, was first developed by German mathematician Erat Schlegel in 1964.
Dark matter makes up a large proportion of the total radiation produced in the atmosphere of the earth.
Astronomy is based on the fact that all of the radiation produced by the planets in our solar system is emitted from cold atomic gases (and other unseen components). These atoms travel through our space-time continuum until they fall back to their original temperatures. The average temperature of the earth is around minus zero. If there were no dark matter, the earth would still be warm; however, because some of the atomic gases produce very high amounts of radiation, the earth’s temperature is higher than what it would otherwise be. This is the cause of many of the planets’ seasons, including summer, spring, and autumn.
Dark matter can be seen by studying the movement of the galaxies.
The galaxies are grouped into groups according to how much dark matter they contain. Our own Milky Way galaxy alone is made up of about 70% dark matter, making it by far the most densely populated galaxy. As it is so dense, it should be rotating smoothly with even speeds similar to that of the spin of an inner spiral galaxy.
Inflation is another way of looking for the mysterious dark matter.
Just like with inflation, when the cosmos was rapidly growing, it left tiny shocks behind that are waiting for dark energy to come through. The cosmic microwave radiation that comes through these shocks looks similar to the radiation we feel around us. The reason that inflation left such a vast amount of this dark energy is that the rate of expansion was so great that it created huge vacuum pockets within the cosmos.
Very sensitive detectors have been put on the space station to search for the presence of dark matter.
Although it is nearly impossible to directly detect dark matter using these instruments, astronomers can use them to study the distribution of ordinary matter. If dark matter exists, it must be present in a very thin layer, about one ten billionths of an inch, or less. It would not be possible to use existing telescopes to search for it because it would distort the images. Therefore, the best way to check for it is by looking for it using Very Thin Lensing Surveys or VLTS. These instruments use very sensitive instruments that will allow a scientist to look at the structure of very faint gas clouds and to determine the distribution of ordinary matter within them.
Very Thin Lensing Surveys can find the average density of ordinary matter in our Galaxy.
As well as this they use the very thin cloud coverings that make up most of the gas clouds. This information tells scientists about the properties of dark matter and the nature of the clusters that make up many of the major celestial bodies in our solar system. They also learn about the relationships between dark matter and the makeup of the Milky Way. These studies also allow astronomers to check for the existence of exotics, which are rocky objects that are not part of our solar system. These tiny rocky objects could be the leftover remnants of extremely heavy celestial objects that went into a different phase in our galaxy’s history.
Although scientists have never directly observed dark matter, they are confident that it exists and that it makes up at least 60% of the total amount of matter in the Earth’s atmosphere. By looking carefully at the properties of this dark matter, we may be able to learn more about its construction and nature. The discovery of dark matter may hold the key to many mysteries in science, not the least of which is why we are still waiting for the elusive dark matter to catch its own gravitational wave.