Quantum approach attempts to solve many unanswered questions of modern classical physics, especially those pertaining to the early stages of the universe.
In effect, this new field attempts to revise our long-standing understanding of cosmology. Many questions remain unanswered concerning the very first moments of the universe and its development into the cosmos we observe today. Some of these remain unanswerable through advanced physics and engineering, whereas others have been answered satisfactorily by science and technology.
One of the most fundamental problems concerning quantum cosmology concerns time.
Cosmologists have formulated a number of different time scales, ranging from the Big Bang to the present. On the largest scales, the universe appears to operate on a chaotic basis, devoid of any fine-tuning by an outside force. On smaller scales, such as the Planck time scale, there are slight fluctuations that give rise to a domain of definite time and space, in which the laws of physics can be perfectly fine-tuned.
The emergence of quantum cosmology has led many scientists to speculate on the nature of space, time evolution, and matter fields.
The emerging picture is that the cosmos was created by a large number of interacting elementary particles, whose gravity tugged on each other via quantum mechanics. Over time, these particles merged into a dense structure that gave rise to a variety of visible matter. The current model of the cosmos, known as the Standard Model, includes such familiar elements as hydrogen, helium, and dust to act as strong nuclear forces that are powered by the collective strength of their vibrating counterparts, namely electromagnetic radiation.
Physicists have also developed a number of alternative theories that attempt to solve some of the problems inherent in quantum cosmology.
One popular theory is the Standard Model, which is not a modification of the Standard Model. This has been criticized by some colleagues of quantumists for ignoring the qualitative aspects of real events and for ignoring the role of consciousness in shaping the fabric of reality. Critics argue that a conscious being does not have the power to create a vacuum and cause the universe to evolve into a state conducive to the emergence of matter and energy. Although this criticism has not been fully substantiated, there is little doubt that the Standard Model is an accurate description of reality.
Another alternative to Quantum cosmology is quantum mechanics, the idea that our universe is governed by quantum laws that were set in motion at the beginning of time.
Although it is tempting to suppose that the early universe was far less than what it is today, it is important to remember that the initial conditions were highly favorable for development of life. In fact, it was the formation of the first cells on earth that led to the appearance of DNA, the genetic code for life. In support of this view, there are several lines of evidence that point to the primacy of quantum mechanics in explaining the origin of life and its evolution.
One of the most commonly expressed objections to Quantum cosmology is that it invokes the concept of time and space.
According to this argument, the early universe did not contain particles at all and therefore it must have been static and unchanging. This renders Quantum cosmology incapable of providing an explanation of the present day, much less the future. However, advocates of this theory argue that such arguments rest upon a misunderstanding of how the wave function of a system can be altered.
In Quantum cosmology the past and the future are determined by the wave functions of their respective mini super space-like counterparts.
The wave function of a system B will be different from that of system A as soon as B starts interacting with A. This is because, at the time of interaction, A’s wave function becomes negative and begins to perturbate B’s wave function, producing what is known as a force field and a tunneling effect. It is this action of particles on each other which determines the state of each system.
Quantum cosmology uses what is called the ‘probability function’ to describe the behavior of the cosmos.
This is actually a fancy name for a mathematical expression whose values can be compared to the probabilities of the actual outcomes of historical events. It is said that the behavior of the real world is governed by quantum mechanics and that is why there are no timeless objects or patterns.
If one accepts this view, one finds that it accounts for all the facts leading up to and around the cosmos without recourse to any religious or metaphysical theories. It also leads to a rejection of special relativity as it cannot adequately account for the structure of the cosmos using only the laws of general relativity.