Gamma ray bursts are incredibly energetic explosions which have been witnessed in distant celestial explosions from faraway galaxies.
They are potentially the most powerful and bright electromagnetic events known to happen in the universe. Bursts can persist for up to 10 milliseconds or more, lasting up to ten seconds, before ceasing completely. The burst’s gamma energy can reach the Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere where the bursts can be seen by tracking the radio waves emitted into space.
Where and how do gamma ray burst originate?
Scientists believe that gamma-ray bursts originate from extremely compact metal-like black holes at the centers of extremely fast spinning galaxies.
The bursts can reach up to a light year away from earth and generate X-rays or gamma rays as they travel through space. Once they reach our planet, scientists believe that they heat up the atmosphere and create afterglows which are the light that we can see when the afterglows reach the earth’s surface. In turn, these gamma rays can destroy life on Earth. However, there are ways that humans can protect ourselves from this destructive radiation. If we notice these gamma rays before they reach the earth, we may be able to stop them from destroying our planet.
Although scientists are not certain exactly how gamma ray bursts are produced, they believe they come from a combination of two very swift chemical reactions inside these extremely fast spinning stars. First, both elements in the star are rushing towards each other at incredible speeds. The faster the mass is moving towards its centre, the faster it becomes compressed (that is to say, hot). When such a mass becomes extremely hot, it can and does expand to create shockwaves as it whizzes through space.
What peculiarities are there about gamma ray bursts?
Astronomers have detected gamma-ray bursts, which were caused by explosions from nearby galaxies when they happened to be within the view of telescopes that are able to look further than Earth.
These discoveries have allowed astronomers to study what happens in these explosions. Although scientists are unsure exactly what causes these gamma ray bursts, they do know that they occur more frequently than scientists once thought.
In addition, studies have shown that these explosions are accompanied by large amounts of Very-Luminous Radiation (VL radiation) which is able to damage living tissue. For example, if there is a super-novae exploding in the Milky Way, there would be a huge amount of Very-Luminous Radiation coming out in all directions, which could eventually lead to deaths from solar and space weather, which can destroy any human living on the ground.
The origin of the discovery:
In the late 1960s, American astronomer Earle Fox had made the first discovery of gamma-ray bursts which he was able to see using a tracking device.
These phenomena were initially called Gamma Ray Bursts and were not known about at the time. However, with the passage of time, the search for these phenomena got underway and NASA were involved in studying these phenomena as well as tracking them using radar. These gamma-ray bursts gave scientists an idea that there might be such things as long-term space weather, although they were not able to pinpoint an exact source of these gamma ray bursts.
What are gamma ray burst caused by?
Scientists have been able to pin-point certain gamma ray bursts as being caused by high-energy collisions between white-light emitting stars.
These gamma-ray bursts emit microwaves of varying electromagnetic spectrum and these waves travel very quickly. They are usually detected by satellites that are orbiting the Earth. These waves are then reflected back and the waves are picked up by Radio and Very-Luminous Radiation detectors which are located on the ground. As these waves move through various mediums they can alter the atoms and molecules of the matter in the medium causing them to emit different types of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum.
This process is similar to how radio waves change the atoms of a rock in a lake, but the process is much faster since a gamma burst goes from millions of light years to just a few hundredths of a millionth of a second. These bursts occur every once in a while, but they have only occurred within the last ten million years.
If you go out to the middle of a spiral galaxy, there is a good chance that you will see one of these bursts because most galaxies are moving through space at a fast pace. Since these bursts can only be seen with a telescope that is rotating at a very high speed, it means that astronomers don’t know when they are going to hit us.
Most astronomers agree that these rare events happen because some of the compact dwarf galaxies surrounding are spinning very quickly.
As more of these compact black holes get closer to the black hole itself, they eventually merge together and collapse. This process happens thousands of times every second within the Milky Way and astronomers can detect these explosions by monitoring the movement of the stars in the area. If you go out to the middle of a Sagittarius or binary system (an extremely large galaxy), there is a good chance that you will see one or two of these Gamma Ray bursts. In fact, these rare events may account for 60% or more of the total outburst that astronomers have been able to observe with their telescopes.