Science seeks to answer the question: “What is the Universe?” The answer will vary depending on who you ask.
Many creationists talk about how the universe is nothing but a “Big Bang” in the making. Some others subscribe to the multiverse hypothesis which posits that there are an infinite number of universes existing parallel to ours.
The cosmos consists of all space and time and all the contents of all atomic and molecular molecules, including stars, planets, galaxies, and the rest of the existing forms of energy and matter in the cosmos. The Big Bang Theory is the most widely accepted cosmological explanation of the emergence of the universe from a massive explosion in the first seconds of the universe’s creation. This theory indicates that the rate of expansion of the universe was faster than the speed of light during the first second and that matter and energy were packets of potential energy which were rapidly flying apart at the time of the explosion.
Astronomers use a variety of tools to study the cosmos. One such tool is the Doppler telescope.
Using this instrument, astronomers have found that the universe has a nearly constant temperature even as the rate of expansion fluctuates significantly within it. In addition, astronomers have measured the temperatures of extremely hot and cold areas of the universe, finding that they are remarkably similar to those temperatures found in our solar system. Furthermore, they have detected cosmic microwave radiation, the radiation left over from the Big Bang, in these cold areas.
Astronomers can also detect the existence of gravitational waves in the cosmos using telescopes.
Although there is no evidence to support the existence of gravitational waves, astronomers cannot discount the possibility. If gravitational waves exist, they may cause variations in the speed of rotation of the earth and other satellites. For example, if there were a large planet rotating near a small star, the telescope would see the effects caused by the planet on the star’s movement.
Astronomers also have measured the distance to the largest galaxies in the universe. They have discovered that the largest galaxies are not necessarily the most distant. The present-day most distant galaxy, known as queloy, lies about 13 billion light-years from the center of the universe, which is not close to all the other known galaxies. The biggest galaxy however, is called CXO J4.
Astronomers believe that there are at least 90 billion galaxies in the cosmos. The majority of the galaxies lie within the halo of the universe, which is a vast web of cold space surrounding the center of the universe. The half galaxy to the left of the halo contains many stars like our own sun. This discovery was made possible through the study of Cosmic UV, which emitted certain ultraviolet light that is invisible to the human eye.
The study also showed that our local universe, which is the Milky Way Galaxy, is actually only a very small part of the cosmos, which is made up of 100 billion smaller fragments of the larger universe.
Although astronomers have detected very few large galaxies, they estimate that about half of the visible universe consists of what we call “open clusters”. These are just like our local cluster, which has less stars than it’s neighbor, but it is much further away. It also holds more water, making it a “solar system star”.
In order to measure the speed of the universe, astronomers use sophisticated tools, such as computers, which are used to map the distribution of celestial bodies and the movement of celestial objects. One of these tools is the Cosmic Microwave Radiometer (CMR). The instrument uses a combination of ultrasound, optical, and electromagnetic properties to detect faint gravitational waves from celestial bodies. These powerful instruments help astronomers discover the fastest speeds that the cosmos can accommodate. Although astronomers cannot measure the exact speed of the universe, they have calculated it with great precision. This knowledge is important in helping scientists discover other exotic celestial objects as well as to test general relativity and quantum mechanics more completely.