Nobel Prize for Physics – Descartes’ Formula For Cosmological Cosmology

Source: Wikipedia

Principles of Physical Cosmology are the essential foundation to the most important area of modern science, written by an eminent pioneer who has molded the discipline into a rigorous and impressive way of explaining the laws of nature. 

Albert Einstein was born almost bankrupt and as a youngster was forced to give up his family’s small and unsuccessful business so that he could go on to study physics at university in Berlin. Although highly theoretical and indeed very confusing, Einstein’s research eventually won him the Nobel Prize, for his theory of relativity. Einstein’s achievements during these years laid the basis for modern physics and helped to shape the world we live in today. The book is an excellent historical read and is worth the time spent understanding it.

The beauty of general relativity is that it can be used to explain all physical phenomena and the universe. 

It tells us that energy, mass and gravity are continuous, and that nothing can ever cause changes in any of them except through intervention by an outside force. The big bang theory and other ideas based on Einstein’s ideas provide some of the best answers to the questions that science has yet to answer about the universe and the human being.

Einstein’s basic theory of relativity deals with special and general laws that govern the movement of matter and energy and tells us that our universe consists of three kinds of radiation: light, sound and microwaves.

In order to describe how the various particles move we must use a set of highly sophisticated and highly precise formulas, which are derived from his discoveries and which govern the behavior of absolutely ordinary physical laws.

These laws tell us that there is no such thing as a point of time, for example, and that time cannot be created or destroyed but merely relative to a clock whose ticks are measured in units of seconds. Einstein’s special theory of relativity is therefore incomplete without a model of the universe based upon the concept of relativity times and units of seconds.

Albert Einstein was born just before world war I, at the time when science was at its inception, and he went on to make major contributions to the development of modern technology and science fiction. 

Two of his most important works are: “The Quantum Theory” and “The Special Theory of Relativity”. His general theory of relativity tells us that the universe is governed by electromagnetic vibrations, which are similar to sound waves. We know that the universe is made of elementary particles, and these particles are like balls of string. These balls can vibrate to the tune of the entire universe, to the tune of its own frequency, which Einstein termed “cosmological” frequencies. According to the special theory of relativity all bodies are subject to the same laws of universal natural laws which are effective only when they are studied in their natural positions.

Source: Space.com

There are many theories as to how the human being fits into this model of the universe.

Albert Einstein wanted to find out if the structure of the universe was fixed and one had to assume a fixed physical reality. By measuring the strength of electromagnetic radiation emitted from a body, he was able to prove that there were no definite limits to the size of the universe. After his death, in Einstein’s last book written before his death, he discussed the relation between cosmology and physics and gave some formulas to measure the speed of light. In general, according to Albert Einstein, all the masses of known entities must be balanced to have a definite speed.

The other theory of Albert Einstein’s is quantum mechanics, in which all known physical laws are used to describe the behavior of subatomic particles. 

He proved mathematically that in a process of expansion, nothing permanent stays in place; rather everything goes through a succession of expansion and contraction. The study of such things as cosmic ordering and the Big bang theory helps to explain the origin of the universe and its present state. There is a common assumption that the universe is in a state of expansion, but what really happens is that space-time itself contracts and lengthens, creating an effect similar to a stretching rubber band, which produces the effect of accelerating the universe apart.

The theories of Albert Einstein concerning general relativity and special relativity are the main theories that provide the basis for physical cosmology. 

The special theory of relativity depicts space-time as a distortion of space-like particles in a gravitational field, while the general theory of relativity depicts the universe as a uniform, isotropic whole. Einstein’s theory of relativity describes gravity as a wave function and the speed of light as the vacuum energy of empty space. It also describes the relationship between mass and the strength of gravity, as well as between the speed of light and the Planck Constant. With these theories, Albert Einstein came up with a complete physical theory of the universe which is the general theory of relativity.

In addition to the great discoveries of Isaac Newton and Galileo during the era of classical physics, there were many less significant discoveries made throughout the history of the human species. Descartes’ creation of a new way of thinking, which became very popular in his time, and Einstein’s theory of relativity paved the way for modern physics. With the award of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2021, physical cosmology has become one of the most celebrated branches of science.

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