Primary Cosmic Rays are unstable, rapidly charged, fast-moving charged particles which are being accelerated to incredible energies by powerful stellar explosions somewhere in the universe.
They have to be very stable (ages less than a billion years), otherwise they would not survive the short trips through intergalactic space. As they whiz by at hundreds of light years a day, the energy they emit is extremely high frequency, with a wavelength of around 10 micrometers. They can only be produced in the most distant cosmic energy factories. The emission is not detectable with the naked eye, but is a gamma ray or x-ray.
Cosmic Rays come from the collisions of quarks held together by electrostatic repulsion.
It is believed that these particles have existed for eons, but are only becoming active now. Quark matter contains very high temperatures and is very dense. In addition, the neutral matter between quarks contains lots of high energies. The accumulation of these very high energies in dense clouds of quarks is what is causing the acceleration of cosmic rays. In collaboration with other research teams, we use particle accelerators to study the interaction of high-energy particles with matter in higher dimensions.
There are two types of cosmic rays: electromagnetic and cosmic rays.
Electromagnetic cosmic rays are produced by colliding protons near a neutral point. The protons contain neutral nuclei, but when the protons collide with an opposing magnet the nuclei get excited, creating gamma rays. Neutrally, neutral but high-energy particles such as carbon make up most of cosmic rays. Radio sources which produce X-rays are generally referred to as “cosmic rays” due to their high frequency, while “high frequency” radio sources are generally referred to as “stellar”, “asteroidal” or “interstellar” sources.
Cosmic rays exert their cosmic energy through wobble in the earth’s axis.
The moon, sun, and gas giants all show signs of this wobble. These tiny variations result in the production of differing amounts of charged gases near the equator, which create a slightly negative charge, and a slightly positive charge, respectively, near the Earth’s poles. This means that, for instance, the amount of solar winds (which carry positively charged ions) near the equator is greater near the poles than near the equator.
While it may seem strange to think that the Earth has its own internal brakes, in actuality there is a brake, called the O-face.
This is the equivalent of our own internal brake on our electric engines, which slows us down as the engine slows, and allows us to slow down even further. This is analogous to the wobble within the earth’s atomic nuclei. When the size of these tiny atomic nuclei becomes too small, the strength of their attraction to other atomic nuclei, as well as to the overall gravitational pull of the earth, reduces drastically, and they become “unstuck” in place.
The second reason the cosmic rays have been studied is because of their high-energy neutrino.
The neutrino is most often associated with gamma decay in high-energy physics experiments. It was also used extensively by cosmic ray researchers to search for signs of the accelerating universe. One of the big questions scientists want answered is if the universe is expanding at all, and if so, how fast. If the expansion rate is too slow, it would mean that we live in an old universe, much like our own.
The third reason why cosmic rays are studied is because they can act as a bridge between our solar system and other, more distant celestial bodies.
The collisions between these particles with intermediate mass objects could produce high-energy neutrinos that would otherwise escape our telescopes. Thus, understanding the processes through which these particles come together can help us learn more about the composition and formation of other planets and solar systems.
Although the answers to the question of what is causing the acceleration of the universe are still up for grabs, cosmic rays can be studied as a way to learn more about the process through which other particles get created. In order to do this, two types of experiments are used today.
One involves using space telescopes to take a look at the effects of very high speeds on atoms and the neutrons in them, using detectors called detectors. The other relies on high-precision computer modelling of the effects of very high speeds on very small space particles. While these two methods cannot answer the question of the origins of the universe, they are good ways to study the processes through which it has come to be.