A supernova is an extremely luminous and extremely fast stellar explosion created by a dying star.
This extremely fast stellar event happens when a dense white dwarf is suddenly triggered into hyperbolic, nuclear fusion (nuclear fusion). This triggers a chain reaction that leads to the growth of a black hole which further implicates the star’s mass, composition, and distance from the black hole. The result of this process is the creation of a large amount of highly energized matter (R Lyntrons) which literally blows a hole in the space time continuum.
Astronomers know that white dwarf stars are relatively cool and compact so they do not evolve into black holes (at least not in the main sequence) and so are not candidates for supernova explosions. But they are not perfectly sterile white dwarf stars. They contain deoxygenated hydrogen clouds (called “habitable environments”). This hydrogen is what causes their formation of nuclear reactions which results in the emission of radiation (gamma rays and x-rays).
Astronomers can detect these explosions by studying phenomena called ” binaries” or “companion stars”.
These explosions are very rare and occur in only a few instances each year. These binaries will tend to collapse together in a common way, so astronomers can study their distance and composition from looking at nearby stars using a spectroscopic device called a coronagraph. A general examination of these binaries will reveal a certain type of hydrogen called “companion molecule”. There is another type of hydrogen which is emitted from a companion star and it is called “photochemical”.
There is also a third type of hydrogen, which is produced by explosions in other universes such as our own. We know about these other universes because they contain many high energy radiation waves which can be detected by telescopes. This third type of hydrogen is called “paraxy”, which is a compound of two hydrogen atoms, namely de-hydrogen (de-atomium), which is characteristic for high-energy radiation waves and composed of six times more protons than normal hydrogen.
Supernovae explosions were first discovered by astronomer Edwin Hubble in 1930. Since then, supernovae explosions have been found all over the galaxy with increasingly high precision. Astronomers use a variety of methods to search for these explosions, such as the Search for Extraterrestrial Planets (SEP) and Very Large Telescope (VLTI). Both of these space telescopes have found many supernovae explosions over the past few decades.
It has been calculated that there are around ten billion galaxies in the universe that makes calculating the amount of supernovae explosions that occur in our own universe difficult.
It has also been estimated that about half of these explosions are white dwarfs which are quite rare. A simulation done by scientists at NASA shows that there are about a hundred thousand standard candles in the universe which would have been created by a single stellar explosion, and nearly all of them would be of low mass. Therefore a supernova could have produced one or two standard candles with an incredible mass, making it very rare indeed. There are approximately a hundred such supernovae explosions that have been detected so far, making the study of the universe about one hundred times larger than it really is.
Supernovae explosions are not completely uncommon, but they are not as common as scientists would like people to believe.
For example, astronomers estimate that there is only a one in a million chance that any supernovae will produce a nucleus that could give off neutrons, which are required to produce heavy elements in the universe such as hydrogen and helium. Furthermore, many of these explosions tend to occur in isolated areas and can cause slight contamination to nearby stars which can cause further depletion of the supply of neutrons. Very few supernovae explosions are likely to produce a nucleus that can give off both electrons and neutrons, although this has not been conclusively proven.
Supernovae explosions are believed to be caused by a process called “collision phase transition” in which an expanding star (that is hot and relatively close to the explosion location) collides with a white dwarf, which is cold and remote from the original explosion. This collision occurs when the white dwarf’s mass gets closer to the exploding star, which results in the hydrogen burning into a small amount of carbon monoxide. If astronomers were able to monitor the supernovae carefully while it was still active, it would be possible to see circumstantial evidence, such as the heating of nearby distant clouds. With such proof, astronomers can refine their search for similar explosions in the future.