In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma rays are extremely powerful explosions which have so far been seen in distant celestial bodies.
They are by far the most energetic and bright electromagnetic occurrences known to take place in the universe. Gamma bursts can last up to ten seconds and can be triggered by a variety of factors. Among other things, they can be caused by explosions, supernovae, and black holes. Although they leave behind much destruction, they do not significantly impact the Earth, fortunately.
Scientists have studied gamma ray bursts for decades as a way to study the properties of these powerful explosions.
They have also studied the subsequent effects that they leave on nearby space and the milieu around them. During one study, observations showed that afterglows lasted for about five minutes. These five minutes were long enough for scientists to get a good look at what happened. In this article, you will learn more about the gamma-ray bursts and their subsequent afterglows.
Long afterglows take place, researchers still cannot entirely explain how they are produced. Some think that they are caused by explosions or supernovae. Supernovae cause huge explosions in a galaxy, sometimes hundreds of stars blowing apart, emitting gamma rays in all their glory. Alternatively, supernovae create very little X-rays that are emitted from the centers of massive black holes. Afterglows can be caused by both types of explosions and by the cooling of very compact gases.
Researchers have made some progress to study gamma ray bursts that occurred near quiescent galaxies.
The process, called GRB per night, has only taken place about three times in the history of the Milky Way. It is a very short burst that does not usually produce any gamma rays. But GRB per night is one of the reasons that astronomers are able to detect other gamma ray bursts that occur in other parts of the universe. Since these brief flashes also produce gamma rays, astronomers have a way to study the afterglows of other explosions to see if they also have afterglows, which will tell them about the nature of the explosion.
Although the afterglows from GRB per night may not be able to tell scientists a great deal about the nature of the explosion, they can help in determining whether GRB is a quiescent or active burst. Active bursts, which create gamma rays and eject huge amounts of material into space, are far rarer than quiescent ones. Thus, if a superluminous super vortex is found to be emitting gamma rays after a gamma-ray burst, it can be taken as a sign that a supergiant star or black hole is about to come out.
Scientists have detected gamma rays emitted by exotic white holes.
The first of these is called the Caralluma nebula, which is located in the northern constellation of Carbigaria. A massive star formation lies at the core of this nebula, and consists of two compact white holes (one with a black hole). There are many theories about how gamma-rays are produced in very dense centers of low gravity, but no direct evidence has been found so far. This makes it difficult to determine the nature of GRB from gamma-rays alone.
Gamma rays emitted by explosions in space may be sent out into the microwave regions of the atmosphere to produce X-rays.
By studying the effects of these bursts on space weather, researchers have detected hints of magnetization, magnetic fields, and the presence of weak gravitational pull around black holes. Radio waves emitted by satellites also seem to have some effect, although the strength and frequency of radio waves emitted is relatively lower than those emitted by GRBs.
Radio waves may be produced by jets shooting from a black hole, but these jets are much too small to notice with the equipment used in space. Radio astronomers tend to look for bursts when there is either very strong radio transmission from a large galaxy/star or a very bright super galaxy (like M dwarfs or spirals).
Astronomers tend to use telescopes to look for terrestrial gamma-ray bursts as they occur.
When they see one, they try to see if it is a transitory flash of light, as they are called, because they go through a lot of dust and gas before losing their energy. However, it is possible for one to go through the disk in a matter of seconds if there is a large amount of material ejected, and they can only go through at very close range.
If they could observe the terrestrial gamma-rays from a distant galaxy, then astronomers might be able to study the effects of collisions between stars to learn about the processes that cause supernovae explosions, and also study the atmospheres of those very close celestial bodies to study the atmospheres of stars in other galaxies.