Quasars are highly evolved stellar objects, highly volatile, extremely hot, very compact, extremely dense white-shaded, ultra-dense spiral galaxies.
A quasar is a highly luminous, rapidly spinning, highly charged, rapidly spinning, extremely bright active Galactic nucleus where a giant black hole with a mass up to a million times the mass of our Sun is enveloped by a highly luminous gaseous accretion disc. This process, known as a runaway greenhouse effect, has produced a very large abundance of solar matter at the centers of most quasars. Astronomers use the infrared “bands” of light emitted by foreground stars to help locate quasars in the distant universe. In fact, astronomers may use quasar filters to search for carbon dust emission from dusty clumps of celestial material.
The most widely-known and study-tested model of a quasar contains a large hole, called a “sinkhole”, inside the nucleus of a quasar.
A rotating, expanding, vibrating metal rod extends out from this hole, while at the same time stretching away space (in the case of spiral galaxies, this stretching might be called a bulge, or “stellar wind”). Warm outer gases from relatively warm stars whirl around this metal rod, and heat the interior of the hole up. This heating produces a very hot glow of radiation that is visible to Earth-based astronomers.
Quasars can also be found in very young galaxies, which are relatively cool.
The present-day most active galaxies have relatively few large quasars. The most populated structure in the early universe, which is the very early, or epoch I, galaxy, contained about one percent more quasars than the rest. Most of these were later found to be very compact and very cold.
The brightness of these compact quasars is consistent with the first few hundredths of a second of the universe, and therefore they can hardly be seen with the naked eye. Many of these compact quasars have been found to lie in a filament of plasma, which is a highly ionized gas composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
In recent years scientists have realised that many quasars could be extremely active.
These extra-galactic objects are thought to be the leftover food for the supermassive Black Hole (SMBH), the center of the Milky Way, which is believed to consist of millions of supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs). Many astronomers believe that the core of one of these giant galaxies, namely the Seychelles dwarf galaxy, has at least two compact black holes. If this is true, it means that there may be many more dwarf galaxies in the early Universe, and that there may be a link between quasars and the formation of compact clusters within these clusters.
In order to study these elusive celestial objects, an instrument called a Very Large Telescope (VL telescope) is used.
By monitoring the movement of dust within the quasar as it flows through it, scientists can learn about the composition and structure of this exotic environment. By measuring the green-yellow color of the emission lines produced by these atoms, a scientist can estimate the distance from the quasar to other nearby galaxies.
Because these emission lines bend the light that they contain, these can also be used to determine the properties of the quasar. For example, a quasar with two bright emission lines might mean that its interior is very hot, emitting high amounts of radiation.
A more sophisticated technique called redshifting enables a scientist to change the color of an emission line by pointing the telescope at a quasar which lies much farther away. This shift in the colors can then be used to confirm whether or not a signal is present within the quasar. Astronomers use this method best when tracking very faint quasars. If the VL telescope is pointed at a quasar that is moving through a galaxy, the shift in the colors can be used to deduce the galaxy’s position.
Astronomers use this method so that they can confirm a theory of a very distant galaxy.
Astronomers first spotted these extremely bright stars by studying their Very Large Telescope (VL telescope), which was built at the University of Arizona. The astronomers were able to discover that the rotation of these stars give off jets of plasma that can stretch for several hundred light-years.
These jets are similar to the bubbles of gas and dust that would form when an asteroid or comet is spinning near the edge of a solar system. Although astronomers cannot see inside these bubbles, they can detect them by looking for variations in the colors of the light that they emit.
It is possible for astronomers to locate very faint objects through Very Large Telescope studies.
When astronomers take into account the effects of parallax, they can tell if an object is rotating fast enough to produce jets of plasma that spread out from the center of the object. When a galaxy is passing through a filament of cold gas, they can see the “hot” jets from within the filament. Because of this, astronomers know how far a galaxy is, even if they cannot see through it directly.