The Cosmic Structure Of Our Universe – The Milky Way

Astronomy has revealed the nature of large-scale structure of matter in the cosmos. 

Einstein’s theory of relativity explained the laws of gravity at large, but the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN proved that it is not the whole truth. According to Einstein’s formula E=mc2, energy can be converted into other forms. He also postulated that the speed of light must be greater than the speed of sound, therefore there must be other forms of energy apart from light. Physicists have therefore decoded subtle discrepancies in the existing patterns of the early universe’s light to map large-scale structures like filaments of doughnut-like bubbles which serve as superhighways for carrying matter from dense centers like galaxy clusters to less dense globular ones like our planet.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), built with financial support from various European countries, is now set to join the worldwide LHC network with the aim of testing precision measurements and advanced technologies to search for the properties of elusive Large Hadron Collider (LHCb) particles. 

Inflation, which is caused by the strong force of a very compact cloud of dust similar to the solar wind, was found to produce intermediate dimensions of structure in the early universe. 

The LHCb will enable detection of these structures, and its detector will be able to detect the very small amounts of rare elements called baryons, quarks, and tau mesons. The precise nature of the properties of these tiny particles will help us to refine our understanding of the structure of matter in the universe and perhaps even help us to rule out theories of gravity and super gravity that remain unproved.

The study of large-scale structure of matter using a compact accelerator produced great results last year. 

The research was supported by collaborations in Switzerland, UK, USA, France, Italy, Canada, Brazil, Japan, China, Russia and the Netherlands. The results published in Physical Review Letters showed that a model of inflation exists, which is consistent with the present-day predictions of inflation. According to inflation, virtual particles or pupils in a state of zero gravity think of themselves as part of a much larger space, which has no boundary and thus is not subject to the laws of gravity. The research discovered the first fluctuations in the Higgs boson, the particle associated with inflation, at a rate better than expected.

Using a computer model, we also found that there are strings of filament stretching between the centers of clusters of galaxies. 

The strength of these filaments depends on the amount of dark matter present. This means that without the large-scale structure of matter to act as an insulator, the fabric of the universe would be very hot indeed, much hotter than it is today. This evidence for the presence of filamentary networks within the universe provides the first observational evidence for a large-scale structure of matter.

Although we have only looked at very small scales of the large-scale structure of matter, we have already discovered two very significant features. 

First, the simulations show that there are several filamentary networks connecting regions of extremely cold regions of the large-scale structure of matter. We also found that many of the filament lines lead into spiral arm structures. These features, combined with the Higgs boson’s discovery, imply that the structure of the universe consists of numerous spiral arm structures that are further connected via filamentary networks.

The second major feature is that many of these filamentary networks form what are known as drusen, which are actually cloud-like structures. 

Another interesting feature that was discovered recently using the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope is the distribution of gas within the large-scale structure of matter. Drusen appear to be arranged in a grid pattern, which is consistent with the formation of galaxy clusters as well as many other large-scale structures. In addition, they appear to be connected to each other, suggesting the existence of a great number of compact clusters, and perhaps the formation of new ones as well.

It has been hypothesized that the distribution of high-energy neutral gas in the early universe can be explained by a redshift from the actual time of formation of the first galaxies in the early days of the cosmos. 

Because of this redshift, scientists think that there was a hyper cluster of extremely compact clusters within the early universe. 

This theory can explain why there is currently so much redshift in a faint blue shifted image of our own Milky Way galaxy. The simulation results show that if we look at a faint blue shifted image of the Milky Way, the distribution of neutral gas in a model galaxy identical to ours should show a tight redshifting of the gas from a blue galaxy into a redshift of zero (in a model with a large amount of inhaling gas), which is inconsistent with what we observe. Because the simulation also predicts that the distribution of normal matter in the early universe will be very similar to the present one, the detection of a very small hypercluster of compact clusters can be ruled out.

Although astronomers have put a lot of research into detecting dark matter, very little is known about the nature of this matter, or the most likely properties it holds.

In the case of the Milky Way, astronomers use a variety of techniques to attempt to detect the presence of this mysterious “something” that makes up nearly 60% of the entire sky. One of the more effective methods involves looking for dusty lanes that seem to be void of dust and clear of any gas. If a galaxy has a massive elliptical spiral arm like our own galaxy, it could also contain dark matter, although astronomers are unsure exactly how much of this may exist. Another technique uses the effects of general relativity to predict the location of halos and clusters of galaxies. 

Although astronomers are still unsure of exactly what this dark matter holds, the current studies have shown a trend that is consistent with the existence of something much heavier than normal gravity.

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