String theory is a topic that has occupied most of the literature in physics for the last half century or so. String theory suggests that all natural forces are composed of vibrating entities, similar to strings. Many theorists have attempted to test this theory with varying degrees of success, though most agree it can only be tested in a zero-dimensional model. Since no such model exists, this raises the question of how the universe became capable of forming complex structures when it did not have the necessary ingredients.
String theory offers many answers to the question of how the universe became orderly, although most are in agreement that it must start out as a four-dimensional field like our own.
One popular idea is that the evolution of the universe started off as chaotic matter, which would then form into stable, intricate systems over time. The most plausible of these String theories is the so-called “God-particle” scenario. The idea is that a super particle could have been responsible for the development of the cosmos, although whether this hypothesis is actually correct remains subject to serious debate.
Two of the most-used methods in String theory are the B-form and the flat state models.
The B-form consists of a series of bifurcations on a horizontal axis, whereas the flat state involves the generation of a one-dimensional oscillator. In both of these models, the leading approach is to use perturbation theory, which predicts that the various possible shapes and sizes of the particles that make up a system will always appear as perturbed variations in the corresponding wave functions. Because the perturbations must arise from the interactions between the particles, there must also be a way to measure the parameters of these shapes.
String theory uses a number of different techniques to derive the potential properties of natural substances.
The first method is gauge symmetry, which postulates that the prime number of the composite string exists, and derives the properties of each string by taking a look at the prime numbers. The second technique used in string theory is called the butterfly method, and relates the structure of strings to the butterfly shaped states of matter that make up their composite strings. The third technique is called the gauge strength, and relies on the assumption that each string is made out of an extremely strong composite string, which has infinitely many units. Gauge symmetry and butterfly and M-theory both postulate a world-wide distribution of strings over a large space, whereas string theory incorporates a much smaller scale, such as the Planck’s constant, into its arguments.
String theory also makes use of another important technique called the string-line method, which predicts the existence and the position of every point along a string in space. Unlike electroweak or weak nuclear physics, string-line theory offers an explanation for the weak nuclear force without relying on the presence of a black hole. String theory therefore combines a wide variety of techniques that were developed separately throughout the history of physics. Among these are the well-known identification of perturbations as the results of interactions between particles, the measurement of the dimensions of isolated points, and the calculation of the potential energy.
String theory also makes use of the String conjecture, which postulates that there are some certain fundamental objects which can be made to lie at certain positions at different times.
This allows for the prediction of the stability of space-time. This conjecture was proven wrong by the renormalisation group following a thirty year study, during which a solution was discovered for a problem posed by theoving commutators. The solution to this problem posed the observation that if a system had a positive or negative attractive force acting on it, then its shape would change. It is thought that if one such particle is able to alter the shape of a negatively attracted Higgs boson by making it spin in a different way, then it could produce matter outside of the known universe.
String theory differs from many other theories in that it does not rely on exotic matter.
Many modern physicists are dissatisfied with the fact that it does not incorporate the rest of the Standard Model, and so many theorists feel that it is irrelevant to include it. Part of the problem stems from the fact that the solutions that String theory offers are only possible if specialised techniques are used, and therefore inaccessible to the generalist. Another reason why many experts do not think String theory can be tested in a scientific way is that it involves exotic matter, which can be explained using ordinary laws of physics, and can thus be shown to be vacuous. String theory therefore has a number of fundamental problems that remain open.
Another problem facing String theory is that many of its predictions are counter-intuitive, especially those relating to the early universe.
These predictions therefore remain unexplained, leading many to suspect that the real answer lies in another area altogether. A major problem faced by String theory is that many of its predictions appear to contradict each other, leading experts to ask questions like: were we really traveling faster than the speed of light when the universe was young? And did the early universe have a small local black hole? The answers to these questions remain unknown, and so even though String theory offers great hope for our understanding of the present and the future, it also stands apart as a great mystery.