Have you ever wondered what the Universe is made of?
There is no human being alive who has ever visited the cosmos and have not asked themselves what is the nature of the universe or the laws that govern its workings. We have a very limited view of the cosmos as a whole and what makes it tick. Even though we haven’t actually come in contact with the universe directly, we have telescopes on the ground and space programs circling the earth taking valuable photos of our existence here on earth. All of these efforts to understand the workings of the cosmos are an attempt to find out what is the nature of the Universe.
The answer may surprise you. The universe consists of nothing but space, time and matter and their respective contents, which include stars, planets, galaxies, and everything else in between. The Big Bang Theory is currently the most prevalent cosmological model of the evolution of the universe. This theory states that the universe was created at the beginning of time (a billion years ago) and that nothing ever came into being except for the stars, planets, and eventually the entire universe as we know it today. It was later diversified into a multiverse model that would allow multiple universes to exist concurrently without contradicting each other.
The standard model of the universe assumes that the universe is made up of a dense neutral mass of empty space (also called the ” Milky Way”).
Over time this structure will tend to form into clusters like the flat disc we all see above us. These clusters of small stars, gas clouds and dwarf galaxies are referred to as “galactic clusters.” They are composed of the same properties as the proto galaxies (which are much less dense and can be seen with the unaided eye), but because they are so far away from the Sun they do not interact as strongly with the Sun. Because of this lack of interaction the galaxies gradually become very small and move apart over time.
By measuring how fast the galaxies are moving away from the mean solar wind (which is how fast the wind is traveling through our solar system) astronomers can estimate how fast the universe was expanding. By looking at the expansion rate of the universe in billions of years (instead of the speed at which it is moving away from us), we can calculate how fast the universe has been expanding. This measurement was first made by Galileo (1540), who used the diameter of the solar corona as a yardstick for calculating the expansion rate of the universe (this was before the discovery of the nature of X-rays). Since Galilei had no way to measure the distance of other celestial bodies other than by using them (and therefore getting into disputes with his fellow astronomers), he was not able to give a precise measurement.
Einstein’s theory of relativity gives us another way to calculate the rate of expansion.
He formulated a theory of special relativity that says that if the same mass is pulled by two different strong forces simultaneously, then the result will be the same. For example, two galaxies that are moving together at a high velocity will produce a radiation beam as a result of the strong pull of their massive black holes, and this will reach earth just after the radiation beam comes from the black hole. Einstein realized that this must be radiation coming from very far away indeed.
In fact, if the universe were as old as scientists believe it to be, there should have been a large amount of matter that has accumulated in a central black hole. However, the amount of matter present is rather inconsistent with the current model of cosmology. In addition, many of the existing stars in our galaxy (including our own sun) are relatively young compared to the age of the universe, and they are very cold. This means that they contain less mass, and thus emit fewer radiation belts. If the universe was very old, it would have a very dense core with very low temperatures, and therefore very few stars, if any, making up the visible sky.
The existence of dark matter can also be explained through the interaction between radiation and its own spin.
The speed of the spin can be compared to that of light, and the fact that the expansion of the universe was speeding up while the stars were growing very slowly means that there was a great deal of water in the cosmos at the very early stage. The water vapor, which was very cold, is now heating up and causing the radiation we see in the cosmic background radiation. Thus, the astronomers were able to explain the presence of the emission lines by considering the properties of dark matter.
In order to create stars, planets, and other living things, the early universe had to contain a lot of nuclear physics.
In particular, this happens through the so-called Goldstone method, where different kinds of nuclear decay can give rise to different elements. Although the results seem to be quite hazy, there is still some suspicion towards the idea of a creationist explanation, and thus, the possibility of a creationist God is still kept open. It is also possible that the observed phenomena could be explained through the Big Bang Theory, in which inflation caused the rapid evolution of the universe and the development of its first particles.