What Are Quasars?

The word quasar comes from the way that these objects were first found in the first radio studies of the night sky back in the 1950s. Astronomers used a device known as a radio satellite to listen in for the signals of black holes. However, away from the plane of our own Milky Way Galaxy, many radio sources were first detected with unusual-looking galaxies devoid of any dust and gas clouds.

While radio telescopes have been helping us learn about outer space for decades, the discovery of quasars marked a turning point in science. 

The first candidates for these incredibly compact and massive stars were those found in galaxy clusters, or groups of several hundred million stars. These molecular clouds were found to contain relatively few Ordinary White Clouds (OCC) – i.e., regular dust clouds – or extremely low-mass stars. They had chemical compositions very similar to the colliding stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. This discovery provided astronomers with a rich source of data about the composition of galaxy clusters and other dark matter halos.

In addition to finding the first Quasars, researchers have also found evidence that suggests the presence of a third class of extremely compact very young stars, otherwise called “Galactic nuclei”. 

These are very young, extremely bright, gas-poor stars that have yet to develop into a black hole or a galaxy merger. Over the past half decade, astronomers have found many of these isolated Galactics with the help of Very Large Telescope (VL telescope) and other space technology. Based on their distance and very weak emission lines, astronomers determined that these isolated Galactics must be merging with other galaxies to form either a black hole or a galaxy.

But what exactly is a quasar? 

A quasar is an irregular elliptical galaxy which has a rotating black hole. Similar to the nucleus of a planet, a star system can form a black hole or a white dwarf. When stars form a black hole, they collapse to form a supermassive Black Hole (SMBH), which emits extremely high radiation. Many scientists believe that the jets of hot gas which forms a black hole are the remains of star formation that existed before the galaxies were created.

Astronomy textbooks describe quasars as “proto-galaxies” or “building blocks” of our very early universe. 

The first hint that quasars exist came from a study of X-rays taken by NASA’s satellites in the 1970s. The result was the discovery that all the hydrogen atoms have an inner electron. This led to the brilliant discovery that our galaxy contains at least one supermassive Super Galaxy (SMSG), which is significantly more dense than the other nearby galaxies. Because these collisions are powered by the strong force of gravity, astronomers have used quasars to determine the composition of our very early universe. 

The evidence they found is consistent with the theory of inflation, which states that the bulk of the universe is made up of several very heavy elements (including metals) that formed together in billions of years with the help of a supermassive Single Galaxy (SMSG), resulting in the present structure.

Since we know that each galaxy is made up of many small satellite galaxies, it is likely that some of these contained quasars too. 

These discoveries provided astronomers with a way to test this inflation theory. By studying the relative brightness of these host galaxies, they were able to determine that there is a connection between the composition of these host galaxies and the amount of gas that fills a black hole. Using computerized models, they were able to show that the rate of expansion of the Universe was much faster than originally believed. They also found out that there must have been a supermassive Host Galaxy within the first few million years after the Big Bang Theory was formulated.

While astronomers are not quite sure about the nature of these companion galaxies, they do believe that the differences between their distribution of matter and that of our own can be accounted for by the existence of double quasars.

Although astronomers are still unsure about what the composition of these companion galaxies are, theories have shown that they must contain rich star formation regions that produce radiation that we can see through telescopes. They also appear to have low-luminosity galaxies at very high speeds. In fact, they are being hailed as the first “satellite” galaxies ever discovered by NASA’s Wide Field Transmission Aperture Array (WMTA). WMTA is a large ground-based telescope that is located in Hawaii, and its infrared detectors are looking for hot dust clouds which are produced by merging and evaporating massive galaxy clusters.

The WMTA is looking for very compact, very young spiral galaxies that are not too far away from the common spiral. 

One of the closest candidates for having this composition is the Great galaxies (icyclova), which are thought to be made up of hundreds of dwarf elliptical galaxies that are growing further apart. There are also signs that there may be a connection between quasars and supermassive Black holes in the universe, and it is possible that the two could be making one another lose mass, as they orbit around each other at great speeds. This would also explain why astronomers have only found very few supermassive Black holes in the Milky Way – they are probably much too small to produce Quasars.

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